Exercise Science, LLC

Personal Training and Rehabilitation, New Orleans, LA.


Exercise and Genetics Reboot

When I wrote the original “Exercise and Genetic Variability" presentation / lecture for the 2006 High Intensity Training Seminar, hosted by Bo Raily in Indianapolis, the information presented was ground breaking. Read More...

Resistance Exercise Reverses Aging in Human Skeletal Muscle

The following study is one of my favorites to discuss. The name says it all and is extremely powerful. Usually, scientists are very measured in their wording. You may see a study with a name such as this:

Eur J Sport Sci. 2016 Nov;16(8):1055-63. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2016.1185164. Epub 2016 May 27.
Effects of resistance training on expression of IGF-I splice variants in younger and older men.
Ahtiainen JP, Hulmi JJ, Lehti M, Kraemer WJ, Nyman K, Selänne H, Alen M, Komulainen J, Kovanen V, Mero AA, Philippou A, Laakkonen EK, Häkkinen K.



Strength training stops the aging process in human skeletal muscle.

I was answering some questions for one our clients the other day concerning various forms of exercise / activity. I recalled this study, opened my laptop and started to discuss the relevant research with the her. This study, in particular, serves to illustrate the priority of resistance training. Read More...

Sleep, Recovery, and Protein Synthesis


“I would like ask you some things about recovery:process of compensation and after supercompensation occour only when we sleep(maybe at fast rate) or even during the day?”

To answer this question completely would require major speculation on my part. As a responsible scientist, I try not to speculate very often. However, protein turnover is elevated during sleep. Also, when a muscle is working, it stops recovering / growing.

See the following:

Age as a Factor in Recovery from Exercise


“How age-dependent is this? Given the huge difference in other areas of healing depending on how old you are, it seems that muscle healing would vary similarly. I could imagine that a healthy 18 year old would be able to repair much more muscle in far less time than a healthy 50 year old. This might lead to the discrepancies in different studies on recovery time (between 2 days and more than 14 days).”

Yes, age does make difference in the requisite time to recover from exercise induced microtrauma (although, I think most of the variability is more related to genotype). In animal models, older rats showed a reduced up-regulated expression of IGF-1 splice variants when compared to younger animals. However, expression was still increased almost 3-fold over untrained conditions.

See the following:

Interleukin-15 Genotype, Random Writings

Well.. This is my first blog post to the new Exercise Science, LLC website. I will be posting more of my random writings from around the web on various subjects.

The first concerns the Interluekin-15 genotype and how it affects strength vs. muscle mass gains in response to a resistance program. This was originally posted in the bodybyscience.net discussion blog in response to a question.

“…is there any correlation as to how much strength gains(percentage gains) does it take to say gain a pound of muscle ie. have you observed any rough relationship that it takes roughly X percentage gains in strength to put a pound of muscle.” Read More...